AbstractRoots are crucial for nutrient and water acquisition and can be targeted to enhance plant productivity under a broad range of growing conditions. A current challenge for plant breeding is the limited ability to phenotype and select for desirable root characteristics due to their underground location. Plant breeding efforts aimed at modifying root traits can result in novel, more stress-tolerant crops and increased yield by enhancing the capacity of the plant for soil exploration and, thus, water and nutrient acquisition. Available approaches for root phenotyping in laboratory, greenhouse and field encompass simple agar plates to labor-intensive root digging (i.e., shovelomics) and soil boring methods, the construction of underground root observation stations and sophisticated computer-assisted root imaging. Here, we summarize root architectural traits relevant to crop productivity, survey root phenotyping strategies and describe their advantages, limitations and practical value for crop and forage breeding programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: root; phenotyping; breeding; root breeding; root ideotype; root plasticity; abiotic stressroot; phenotyping; breeding; root breeding; root ideotype; root plasticity; abiotic stress►▼ Figures
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style
Paez-Garcia, A.; Motes, C.M.; Scheible, W.-R.; Chen, R.; Blancaflor, E.B.; Monteros, M.J. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement. Plants2015, 4, 334-355.
Paez-Garcia A, Motes CM, Scheible W-R, Chen R, Blancaflor EB, Monteros MJ. Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement. Plants. 2015; 4(2):334-355.Chicago/Turabian Style
Paez-Garcia, Ana; Motes, Christy M.; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Chen, Rujin; Blancaflor, Elison B.; Monteros, Maria J. 2015. "Root Traits and Phenotyping Strategies for Plant Improvement." Plants 4, no. 2: 334-355.
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In unit one, we were introduced to the murder of Anna Garcia. We had to ‘visit’ the crime scene and document what we saw. In this unit, we learned many things, and conducted different experiments to help us understand what may have happened to Anna, and how she died. In this paper, you will read about what we learned, our theories about her death, and the evidence that helped us create our theories. The first piece of evidence we looked at was the fingerprints. We had prints from the victim, as well as other fingerprints, presumably from the culprit or culprits.
We examined the different patterns, and identifying marks that can be used to determine whose fingerprints were found at the crime scene. As we studied the fingerprints, we discovered that one of the fingerprints contained a loop in its pattern. After further examination and consideration, we determined that this particular print pattern belongs to Alex Garcia, Anna’s ex-husband. The next piece of evidence that we looked at was the shoeprints. Like the fingerprints, we received shoe size, and shoe prints from the the victim, and the possible suspect.
We took a ruler, and measured the shoe print and looked at the pattern of the shoe prints. Upon determining the size of the shoe print, and the design of the shoe, we determined that the prints belonged to Anna Garcia. The next piece of evidence we analyzed was the hair that we discovered at the crime scene. As we analyzed the hair, we discovered that naturally curly hair as little bumps on them which is the hair follicles and the keratins that are clustered together in the hair. The hair that was collected from the crime scene had a couple of little bumps on them causing the hair to be slightly curled.
Upon looking at the victim’s hair, as well as the possible culprit/culprits, we determined that the hair that matched the hair belonged to the victim, Anna Garcia. After discovering the hair belonged to Anna Garcia, we blood typed the blood from the crime scene to determine who it may belong to. We collected blood samples from the victim, and the suspects, and determined the type of blood each person had. After that, we blood typed the blood that was found at the crime scene, and determined that it was type a. The only two people who were involved in this investigation was Anna, and Erica Piedmont, who is the current wife of Alex Garcia.
At the crime scene, there was an unknown substance found. After discovering the substance, and collected it, it got grounded up, and we used substance determiners to discover how different substances react. After testing some of the possible substances, we tested the unknown substance, and compared it to the other substances. We determined that the substance found at the crime scene was acetylsalicylic acid. After receiving the autopsy report, Anna had trace amounts of acetylsalicylic acid, also known as aspirin, present. The next thing we did, was we analyzed the blood spatters found at the crime scene.
In order to do this, we had to “remake the crime scene. ” We used paper which absorbs the stimulated blood in order for us to analyze the size, and the amount of off-spray that there was. In order to recreate the crime scene, we used a spoon, and dropped a certain amount of blood at various heights. After determining the height of the blood, we determined that the blood came from a height of 63 inches stating that if Anna had a cut, it was on her forehead. It autopsy concluded that there was in fact a two cm. cut that was five mm. deep. Now in order to determine if the blood was truly Anna’s, we analyzed it through gel electrophoresis.
We had DNA from all the suspects, as well as Anna. We used the gel electrophoresis to run the DNA through to determine the different lengths of the segments. After the gel electrophoresis was finished, and we analyzed it, we determined that the blood belonged to Anna, stating that the blood did in fact come from her. Even though we determined that the blood came from Anna, we still do not know how she got the cut. We also do not know how she got a bruise on her right elbow, even though it is thought to be that when she fell, she hit it on the coffee table that was knocked over at the crime scene.
We also do not know whether Alex and Erica have anything to with the death of Anna Garcia. Also there was many limitations in reconstructing what actually happened at the crime scene, because we do not know what the syringe was used for, and how she got the cut on her forehead. In conclusion, Anna’s death is still undetermined because there is still many missing pieces to how she died. If any one of the suspects killed Anna, it would have to be Alex because he left his fingerprint in her house. But it may have just been a coincidence because Alex did come to talk to Anna earlier.
It may have been any of the other suspects, but they would have had to do a very good job at making sure that they didn’t leave any evidence that would point to them. For the next process, I would recommend that the autopsy gets completed, as well as other rooms in Anna’s house get searched in case that there is any more evidence in a second crime scene. I also recommend that Alex and Erica get interviewed, Alex because he may have killed Anna, and Erica because she may be an accomplice to the murder, or even know that Alex killed her, and how he killed her.
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