Pudukad Mla Bibliography

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Winner and Runnerup Candidate in Puthukkad assembly constituency


The table below shows the Winner and Runnerup candidate form the Puthukkad Assembly Constituency. The party symbol is also shown along.

Winner Candidate -

Prof.C Raveendranath (won by: 38478 )

Puthukkad Election Results 2016

Table showing the winning and the runner-up Candidate of the 2016 Vidhan Sabha Election in Puthukkad Assembly

YearPartySymbolstatusCandidate Namevotes
2016INC RunnerUpSundaran Kunnathully 40986
2016CPM WinnerProf.C Raveendranath 79464

List of candidates for Puthukkad Constituency 2016

The table below shows the contesting candidates of BSP, BJP, CPI(M), Congress, CPI, IUML, Independent etc. from the Puthukkad Assembly Constituency in the Kerala Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) Elections 2016.


Sitting and previous MLAs from Puthukkad Assembly Constituency

Below is the list of winners and runners-up in the Puthukkad assembly elections conducted so far.

YearA C No.Constituency NameCategoryWinnerGenderPartyVotesRunner UpGenderPartyVotes
201171PuthukkadGENProf: C. RaveendranathMCPM73047Adv. K. P. ViswanathanMINC46565

Last Updated on May 13, 2016




1. Malayalam – Malayalam /mʌləˈjɑːləm/ is a language spoken in India, predominantly in the state of Kerala. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and was designated as a Classical Language in India in 2013 and it was developed to the current form mainly by the influence of the poet Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century. Malayalam has official status in the state of Kerala and in the union territories of Lakshadweep. It belongs to the Dravidian family of languages and is spoken by some 38 million people, according to one theory, Malayalam originated from Middle Tamil in the 7th century. However, the current understanding proposes the separation of Malayalam from Proto-Dravidian in the pre-historic era, Malayalam incorporated many elements from Sanskrit through the ages. Before Malayalam came into being, Old Tamil was used in literature and courts of a region called Tamilakam, including present day Kerala state, silappatikaramit was written by Chera prince Ilango Adigal from Chunkaparra, and is considered a classic in Sangam literature. Modern Malayalam still preserves many words from the ancient Tamil vocabulary of Sangam literature, the earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, and later the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it. As Malayalam began to borrow words as well as the rules of grammar from Sanskrit. This developed into the modern Malayalam script, many medieval liturgical texts were written in an admixture of Sanskrit and early Malayalam, called Manipravalam. The oldest literary work in Malayalam, distinct from the Tamil tradition, is dated from between the 9th and 11th centuries, the first travelogue in any Indian language is the Malayalam Varthamanappusthakam, written by Paremmakkal Thoma Kathanar in 1785. Due to its lineage deriving from both Tamil and Sanskrit, the Malayalam script has the largest number of letters among the Indian language orthographies, the Malayalam script includes letters capable of representing almost all the sounds of all Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages. Malayalam serves as a language on the islands including the Mahl-dominated Minicoy Island. The word Malayalam originated from the Sanskrit resp, Malayalam words malai or mala, meaning hill, and elam, meaning region. Malayalam thus translates as hill region and used to refer to the land of the Chera dynasty, the language Malayalam is alternatively called Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, and Mallealle. The word Malayalam originally meant only for the name of the region, Malayanma or Malayayma represented the language. With the emergence of modern Malayalam language, the name of the language started to be known by the name of the region, hence now, the word Malayanma is considered by some to represent the olden Malayalam language. The language got the name Malayalam during the mid 19th century, the origin of Malayalam, an independent offshoot of the proto-Dravidian language, has been and continues to be an engaging pursuit among comparative historical linguists. Together with Tamil, Toda, Kannada and Tulu, Malayalam belongs to the group of Dravidian languages

2. Alappuzha – Alappuzha, also known as Alleppey, is the administrative headquarters of Alappuzha District of Kerala state of southern India. Alappuzha is a municipality in Kerala with a population of 174,164. In 2016, Centre for Science and Environment rated Alappuzha as the top cleanest town in India followed by Panaji & Mysuru. Alappuzha is considered to be the oldest planned city in this region, Alappuzha is situated 28 km from Changanssery,46 km from Kottayam and 53 from Kochi and 155 kilometres north of Trivandrum. A town with picturesque canals, backwaters, beaches, and lagoons, hence, it is known as the Venetian Capital of Kerala. Malayalam is the most spoken language, hindi, English and Tamil are also spoken in the town. Alappuzha is an important tourist destination in India, the Backwaters of Alappuzha are the most popular tourist attraction in Kerala. A houseboat cruise in these backwaters can be booked and it connects Kumarakom and Cochin to the North and Quilon to the South. Alappuzha is the point for the annual Nehru Trophy Boat Race, held on the Punnamada Lake, near Alappuzha. This is the most competitive and popular of the races in India. The mullackal chirap is also one of the attractions of Allapuzha which is the season held for ten days every year in December. Communist Party members were killed by the army of the diwan,200 people at Punnapra on 24 October, the total loss of life is allegedly estimated to be more than a thousand. Coir is the most important commodity manufactured in Alappuzha, the Coir Board was established by the Central Government under the provisions of the Coir Industry Act,1955. A Central Coir Research Institute is located at Kalavoor, the name Ᾱlappuzha is a toponym. ‘Ᾱlam’ means ‘water’ and ‘puzha’ means ‘watercourse’ or ‘river’, according to Dr. Herman Gundert’s dictionary, the name refers to the network of waterways and backwaters that Alappuzha and surrounding areas are famous for. Puzhai in Tamil means gateway or window. This might have been the meaning in ancient Malayalam too. The present Alappuzha district comprises six taluks, namely Cherthala, Ambalappuzha, Kuttanad, Karthikappally, Chengannur, the area of the district is 1414sq. km. The district headquarters is located at Alappuzha, in the early first decade of the 20th century the Viceroy of the Indian Empire, Lord Curzon made a visit in the State to Alleppey, now Alappuzha

3. Kerala – Kerala historically known as Keralam, is an Indian state in South India on the Malabar Coast. It was formed on 1 November 1956 following the States Reorganisation Act by combining Malayalam-speaking regions, spread over 38,863 km2, it is bordered by Karnataka to the north and northeast, Tamil Nadu to the east and south, and the Lakshadweep Sea to the west. With 33,387,677 inhabitants as per the 2011 Census, Malayalam is the most widely spoken language and is also the official language of the state. The region has been a prominent spice exporter since 3000 BCE, the Chera Dynasty was the first prominent kingdom based in Kerala, though it frequently struggled against attacks by the neighbouring Cholas and Pandyas. In the 15th century, the spice trade attracted Portuguese traders to Kerala, after independence, Travancore and Cochin joined the Republic of India and Travancore-Cochin was given the status of a state in 1949. In 1956, Kerala state was formed by merging Malabar district, Travancore-Cochin, Hinduism is practised by more than half of the population, followed by Islam and Christianity. The culture is a synthesis of Aryan and Dravidian cultures, developed over millennia, under influences from other parts of India, the production of pepper and natural rubber contributes significantly to the total national output. In the agricultural sector, coconut, tea, coffee, cashew, the states coastline extends for 595 kilometres, and around 1.1 million people in the state are dependent on the fishery industry which contributes 3% to the states income. The state has the highest media exposure in India with newspapers publishing in nine languages, mainly English, Kerala is one of the prominent tourist destinations of India, with backwaters, beaches, Ayurvedic tourism and tropical greenery as its major attractions. The name Kerala has an uncertain etymology, One popular theory derives Kerala from Kera and alam is land, thus land of coconuts, this also happens to be a nickname for the state due to abundance of coconut trees and its use by the locals. The word Kerala is first recorded in a 3rd-century BCE rock inscription left by the Maurya emperor Ashoka, the inscription refers to the local ruler as Keralaputra, or son of Chera. This contradicts the theory that Kera is from coconut tree, at that time, one of three states in the region was called Cheralam in Classical Tamil, Chera and Kera are variants of the same word. The word Cheral refers to the oldest known dynasty of Kerala kings and is derived from the Proto-Tamil-Malayalam word for lake, the earliest Sanskrit text to mention Kerala is the Aitareya Aranyaka of the Rigveda. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the two Hindu epics, the Skanda Purana mentions the ecclesiastical office of the Thachudaya Kaimal who is referred to as Manikkam Keralar, synonymous with the deity of the Koodalmanikyam temple. Keralam may stem from the Classical Tamil cherive-alam or chera alam, the Greco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to Keralaputra as Celobotra. According to Hindu mythology, the lands of Kerala were recovered from the sea by the warrior sage Parasurama. Parasurama threw his axe across the sea, and the water receded as far as it reached, according to legend, this new area of land extended from Gokarna to Kanyakumari. The land which rose from sea was filled with salt and unsuitable for habitation, so Parasurama invoked the Snake King Vasuki, out of respect, Vasuki and all snakes were appointed as protectors and guardians of the land

4. Malayalam literature – Malayalam literature comprises those literary texts written in Malayalam, a South-Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala. The earliest known extant literary work in Malayalam is Ramacharitam, a poem written in the late 13th or early 13th century. In the subsequent centuries, besides a popular pattu literature, the manipravalam poetry also flourished, Manipravalam style mainly consisted of poetry in an admixture of Malayalam and Sanskrit. Then came works such as champus and sandeshakavyas in which prose, later, poets like Cherusseri introduced poems on devotional themes. There were also important works, similar to manipravalam, in Arabi Malayalam like Muhyadheen Mala. Ezhuthachan, a proponent of Bhakti movement, is known as the father of Malayalam. His poems are classified under the genre of kilippattu, kumaran Asan was temperamentally a pessimist—a disposition reinforced by his metaphysics—yet all his life was active in promoting his downtrodden Hindu-Ezhava community. Ullor wrote in the tradition, on the basis of which he appealed for universal love. Contemporary Malayalam poetry records the encounter with problems of social, political, the tendency of the modern poetry is often regarded as toward political radicalism. For the first 600 years of the Malayalam calendar, Malayalam literature remained in a preliminary stage, during this time, Malayalam literature consisted mainly of various genres of songs. The most prominent among these were songs praising the goddesses of the land, ballads of brave warriors, songs related to the work of a particular caste and these names were not used historically, but are used in modern times to describe the song genres of that time. Ramacharitham is a collection of poems written at the end of the stage in Malayalam literatures evolution. It is the oldest Malayalam book available, the collection has 1,814 poems in it. Ramacharitham mainly consists of stories from the Yuddha Kanda of the Ramayana and it was written by a poet with the pen name Cheeramakavi who, according to poet Ulloor S Parameswara Iyer, was Sree Veerarama Varman, a king of Travancore from AD1195 to 1208. Krishnan Nair, claim that the origins of the book can be found in north Kerala and they cite the use of certain words in the book and also the fact that the manuscript of the book was recovered from Neeleshwaram in north Kerala. Some experts consider it a Tamil literary piece, a. R. Rajaraja Varma, who heavily contributed to the development of Malayalam grammar, is of the opinion that Malayalam originated from ancient Tamil. Ramacharitham is considered a book written during the years of Malayalam. According to Rev. Dr. Hermann Gundert, who compiled the first dictionary of the Malayalam language, Lilathilakam, a work on grammar and rhetoric, written in the last quarter of the 14th century discusses the relationship between Manipravalam and Pattu as poetic forms

5. Sree Narayana College, Kollam – The college is affiliated to the University of Kerala. Currently, the college offers 17 undergraduate and 13 postgraduate courses with eight Departments as approved research centers, apart from maintaining a high standard in teaching and research, the institution has earned reputation in the field of co-curricular and extension activities too. The students of this institution consistently win laurels in sports, games, arts and literary competitions along with ranks, the college has a staff strength of more than 270 out of which 190 are members of the teaching faculty. SN College also has a page named Troll SNC started by the students in the year 2016. ]] The college was established by Sree Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam, the college formally started functioning on June 16,1948 with 505 students at the Pre-University level. It was upgraded into a college in the following year. It was the first college in Kollam to start a post graduate course

6. Maharaja's College, Ernakulam – The Maharajas College is an Indian government college of higher education located in Ernakulam, Kerala, India. Located in the heart of the city Kochi, it is spread over a campus of 25 acres on the banks of Vembanad Lake, the school was upgraded to a college in 1875 and in June 1925 the college acquired its present name. The college provided instruction in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, History and Economics, at that time there were two hostels and physical education, literary and science associations functioning in full swing. Sir C. V. Raman and Dr S. Radhakrishnan were among the speakers at the Golden Jubilee celebrations in 1925, the first PG course was started in 1947 in the Department of Chemistry, which already had research facilities holding to M. Sc and Ph. D. Following the integration of Cochin and Travancore states, the college was transferred from Madras to Travancore University in 1949, the student body grew from 500 in 1925 to 2,802 in 1998, the teaching faculty saw a parallel increase from 21 to 195. In 2014, UGC awarded Autonomous status to the college, the college library is 135 years old and has a collection of nearly one lakh books, including a prestigious collection of rare literature books. The reference section itself has 2000 books, however, lack of space is one of the vexing problems of the library. A reference and information section, inter-library networking and Internet facility are some of the requirements of the library. Facilities are available for games like table-tennis, carom, chess, wrestling, weightlifting. The Maharajas College staff and students co-operative society Ltd. no,207, functioning on the campus, aims at promoting the spirit of cooperation and independence among its members. The society runs a bookshop in which textbooks and notebooks and various materials are made available for students. It also houses a machine where photocopying is done at a reduced rate. In spite of the fact that the centre is still in its infancy and has few facilities, it could arrange campus interviews for Cochin Maintenance Centre, NITT. Many lectures on career opportunities are arranged on a basis by the centre. The Maharajas College Rama Varma hostels include the new hostel for men, the former has 90 rooms with a capacity of 240 students and two tutors, the latter has facilities for only 104 students and one tutor. Nowadays, the demand for accommodation in the hostel is greater than the availability due to the increase in the number of girl students. To remedy this situation, a proposal for a womens hostel has been submitted to UGC during the IX plan. It has also played a role in initiating the ongoing restoration work of the College The college conducts 19 degree courses,21 postgraduate courses and 11 doctorate programmes. G

7. Ernakulam – Ernakulam refers to the eastern, mainland portion of the city of Kochi in central Kerala, India. The city is the most urban part of Kochi and has lent its name to the Ernakulam district, Ernakulam is called the commercial capital of the state of Kerala. The Kerala High Court, the Office of the Corporation of Cochin, the Ernakulam Junction or South station, Ernakulam Town or North Station and Ernakulam Terminus railway stations of the Indian Railways lies in Ernakulam. Initially, Ernakulam was the headquarters of the Ernakulam District but was shifted to Kakkanad. Ernakulam was once the capital of the Kingdom of Cochin and it is located 220 kilometres towards north-west of the state capital Thiruvananthapuram. The city has served as an incubator for many Malayali entrepreneurs and is a financial and commercial hub of Kerala. Starting from the Stone Age, Ernakulam has been the site of human settlement, monolithic monuments like Dolmens and rock-cut caves can be seen in many parts of Ernakulam. The region can claim to have played a significant part in fostering the trade relations between Kerala and the world in the ancient and medieval period. The early political history of Ernakulam is interlinked with that of the Chera Dynasty of the Sangam age, after the Cheras, the place was later ruled by the Kingdom of Cochin. Ernakulam was the capital of the erstwhile Cochin State, in the first state census of 1911, the population of Ernakulam was 21,901,11,197 Hindus,9,357 Christians,935 Muslims, and 412 Jews. The City of Ernakulam is situated in Ernakulam District of Central Kerala in India, Ernakulam is located at 9. 98°N76. 28°E /9.98,76.28. It has an elevation of 4 m. Under the Köppen climate classification, City of Ernakulam features a Tropical monsoon climate, since the region lies in the south western coastal state of Kerala, the climate is tropical, with only minor differences in temperatures between day and night, as well as over the year. Summer lasts from March to May, and is followed by the South-west monsoon from June to September, october and November form the post monsoon or retreating monsoon season. Winter from December through February is slightly cooler, and windy, the City is drained in the monsoonal season by heavy showers. The average annual rainfall is 3000 mm, the South-west monsoon generally sets in during the last week of May. On an average, there are 124 rainy days in a year, the maximum average temperature of the City in the summer season is 33 degree Celsius while the minimum temperature recorded is 22.5 degrees Celsius. The winter season records an average of 29 degree Celsius

8. Union Christian College, Aluva – The Union Christian College, Aluva is an educational institution in Kerala, India. It is situated to the north of Aluva in Ernakulam District, the college was affiliated to The Madras University, then Travancore University and is now affiliated to Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam. Chacko, Prof. A. M. Varki, Prof. C. P. Mathew, Union Christian College Aluva was founded in 1921 as a premier centre of higher learning in Kerala, South India. The campus is located close to the banks of the river Periyar, Union Christian College is the only centre of higher education in Kerala functioning on an ecumenical basis. It became a centre for a host of scholars, theologians. The list includes Canon W. E. S. Holland, Rev. L. W. Hooper, Rev. B. G. Crowley, the faculty of the early years was a balanced mix of Christian and non-Christian members. The college has maintained this structure to the present. Union Christian College received A grade from the National Assessment and Accreditation Council, in the history of India, UCC is the first college getting accredited in the third cycle. The NAAC team visited the campus on 16,17 and 18 March 2011, the college, at first entirely residential, has now on its rolls a larger number of day scholars than residents. In 1925 Mahatma Gandhi visited the college and planted a mango tree and he wrote in the visitors book delighted with the ideal situation. The mango sapling is now flourishing in front of the administrative block The present emblem was adopted in 1939, the symbolism calls on the seekers after knowledge and truth to hold the torch, read the book and reap the harvest. The college motto is The Truth shall make you free and this motto is drawn from a statement made by Jesus to the Jews, “You will know the truth and the truth will make you free”. The Rigveda proclaims that ‘Truth is the support of the earth’, buddha exhorts, ‘Hold to the truth within yourselves as to the only lamp’. The Quran declares that ‘God is truth’, to Gandhiji, the father of the nation, the whole of life was the pursuit of or experiments with truth. His life demonstrated to the world, although in a limited field, ‘Mahaganitham’ is a sculpture commemorating the large mahogany tree that stood in front of the Cutcherry Malika. The tree was struck by lightning in 2002 and the stand as ‘Mahaganitham’ near its original position. The ‘Mahaganitham’ represents the historic Mahogany tree and ‘Ganitham’, Mathematics, concepts like the Golden ratio and Fibonacci series are used in the design. More than a thousand mathematical entities and geometrical shapes are engraved in the sculpture, the five Platonic bodies - tetrahedron, hexahedron, octahedron, dodecahedron and icosahedron - are present in it

9. Aluva – Aluva, is second biggest town of Greater Cochin City in the Ernakulam district of Kerala, India which is also considered as the Industrial and Commercial City of Kochi. Located on the River Periyar, Aluva is the epicentre of the state. A major transportation hub, with access to all major forms of transportation. Cochin International Airport Limited – CIAL at Nedumbassery, is 11.7 km away from Aluva, Aluva is more famous for its accessibility through Rail, Air and Metro. Aluva, home to the residency of the Travancore royal family – the Alwaye Palace - is also famous for the Sivarathri festival celebrated annually at the sandbanks of Periyar. The Advaita Ashrams in Aluva founded in 1913 by Sree Narayana Guru, today, whilst part of the Kochi urban agglomeration, Aluva is an autonomous municipality, its civic administration conducted by Aluva Municipal Council. Archaeologists have found evidence of settlements in Aluva as far back as 250 BC, the place used to be a continuous area of land spread across Kakkanad and Alangad, historians have recorded that it was so up to AD1341. The town, by then populated, became a holiday resort. Mangalappuzha, a branch of Periyar which bifurcates at Aluva was known to be the centre of trade. Before Indian independence, Aluva was part of the Kingdom of Travancore and was the summer residence of the royal family. The etymology of the name of the town of Aluva has been the subject of speculation for centuries, one of the more accepted version relates to the story of Hindu god Shiva drinking the Kalakootam poison to save the world. It is said that Shiva with the poison -Alam- in his mouth -Vaa- was made into a deity which was then rested in a temple in Aluva, the Sivarathri festival for which the town is famous for is celebrated in the honour of Shiva. In the twentieth century, when there was a community of Jews in Cochin and it also has a name gate way to east Aluva is a constituency in the Kerala Legislative Assembly. The Aluva assembly constituency is part of the Chalakudy, anwar Sadath is the MLA of Aluva. The current municipal council is ruled by Indian National Congress Party, regular domestic and international connections are available from the airport. Aluva railway station in the town, is the second largest railway station in Kochi UA after Ernakulam South, all passenger, express trains bound to southern Kerala do have a stop in this station. Some leaflets/websites still refer the towns old name, by Metro Kochi Metro starts from Aluva Bypass which will change the face of Aluva. The project was started on mid of 2013 and expected to complete by 2017 end, Kochi Metro is expected to overcome the traffic problems in Aluva – Ernakulam route

10. Cherthala – Cherthala is a town located in the district of Alappuzha, in the state of Kerala, India. It is 31 km to Kochi and Kottayam and 22 km north of Alappuzha town, on the Kochi-Alappuzha National Highway NH47, the coastal town is also about 20 kilometers from the historical town of Vaikom) Via Ullala -Chempakassery house and the popular tourism destination Kumarakom. In local administration, the Cherthala town is a municipality while in the administrative structure Cherthala is a taluk in the district of Alappuzha. A Famous company situated here. N. S. S Karayogam also try to develop cherthala, the Corporation of Cochin has drafted a master plan that aims to develop Cherthala as the satellite town around Kochi. According to the legend, once Vilwamangalam Swamiyar, the well known Kerala Hindu saint, while travelling through Cherthala. The swami understood the divinity of the idol, took it out of the mud, cleaned it, thus the place is believed to have gotten its name as cher meaning mud and thala meaning head in Malayalam. The deity of the temple has the name Cherthala Karthiyayani, the word put together means head from the mud. Unlike in other Kerala temples, the idol of Cherthala Karthiyayani Devi is consecrated in the Sreekovil just below the ground level, the place got its name as chertha thala. Cherthala taluk is a part of Alappuzha Revenue District and Alappuzha Parliamentary constituency, all the villages of Cherthala Taluk come under the Cherthala and Aroor Constituencies of Kerala Legislative Assembly. These block panchayats are again subdivided into Grama panchayats, the Grama panchayats in Pattanakkad Block Panchayath are Aroor, Ezhupunna, Kuthiathode, Kodamthuruthu, Thuravoor, Pattanakad and Vayalar. The Thycattussery Block Panchayath have five Grama Panchayaths, viz. Arookutty, Perumbalam, Panavally, Thycattusserry, kadakarapally, Cherthala South, Kanjikuzhi, Thanneermukkom and Mararikulam North are Grama panchayaths in the Kanjikuzhi block. According to the Kerala government website, Cherthala municipality had a population of 43,326 over an area of 16.18 square kilometres, the density of the population is 2678 per square kilometre. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%, Cherthala has an average literacy rate of 94%, with male literacy of 98. 4% and female literacy of 89. 7%. Vaduthala Jetty College of Engineering, Cherthala Nair Service Society College Sree Narayana College St. Dev S. L, many of the senior artists also have a significant number of disciples in and around Cherthala. Cherthala lies between the Kottapuram-Kollam National Waterway 3 passing through the Vembanad lake, prior to the coming of NH47, cargo and freight from Cochin market were transported in country boats through the Vembanad lake via the small lake diverting from Arukutty-Thycattuserry-Vayalar. Now these country boats are no more used for cargo transportation, one can still find the canal running across the center of the town which was once the busiest waterway. One can reach Vaikom by the Tavankadav-Vaikom ferry service covering approx 3.5 km across the Vembanad lake, there are small inland waterways or rivers, which flow across the villages, still navigable through county boats. They transport coir, marine products, vegetables, paddy, sand, construction materials, the majority of these inland rivers flow from Vembanad Lake on the eastern side and merge into the azhi or sea near Anthakaranazhi on the west coast, crossing the NH47 at different places

11. Kollam – Kollam or Quilon, formerly Desinganadu, is an old seaport and city on the Laccadive Sea coast of Kerala, India. The city is on the banks Ashtamudi Lake, Kollam has had a strong commercial reputation since the days of the Phoenicians and Romans. Fed by the Chinese trade, it was mentioned by Ibn Battuta in the 14th century as one of the five Indian ports he had seen during the course of his twenty-four year travels, desinganadus rajas exchanged embassies with Chinese rulers while there was a flourishing Chinese settlement at Kollam. In the 9th Century, on his way to Canton, China, Marco Polo, the great Venetian traveller, who was in Chinese service under Kublai Khan in 1275, visited Kollam and other towns on the west coast, in his capacity as a Chinese mandarin. V. Nagam Aiya in his Travancore State Manual records that in 822 AD two East Syrian bishops Mar Sabor and Mar Proth, settled in Quilon with their followers. Two years later the Malabar Era began and Quilon became the city of the Malabar region ahead of Travancore. Kollam is a city on the banks of Ashtamudi Lake that took the title Gods Own Country without much demur. The braids of Ashtamudi Lake lie about 71 kilometres north of the state capital, the city hosts the administrative offices of Kollam district and is a prominent trading city for the state. The proportion of females to males in Kollam city is second highest among the 500 most populous cities in India, Kollam is the least polluted city in India. Four major trading centers/towns around Kollam are Kottarakara, Punalur, Paravur, There was also internal trade through the Punalur Pass connecting the ancient town to Tamil Nadu. The rail links later established to Tamil Nadu supported still stronger trade links, the factories processing marine exports and the processing and packaging of cashewnuts extended its trade across the globe. Kollam is the fourth most populous city in Kerala and the fifth largest in incorporated area and it is known for cashew processing and coir manufacturing. Ashtamudi Lake is considered the gateway to the backwaters of Kerala and is a prominent tourist destination at Kollam. The Kollam urban area includes towns such as Paravur in the south, Kundara in the east. Other important towns in the city suburbs are Eravipuram, Kottiyam, Kannanallur, Kollam appeared as Palombe in Mandevilles Travels, where he claimed it contained a Fountain of Youth. During the later stages of the rule of the Chera monarchy in Kerala, Kollam emerged as the point of trade. Kollam continues to be a business and commercial centre in the Southern Kerala. In 825 CE, the Malayalam calendar, or Kollavarsham, was created in Kollam at meetings held in the city, the present Malayalam calendar is said to have begun with the re-founding of the town, which was rebuilt after its destruction by a fire

12. Kayamkulam

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