The Moscow 1980 Olympics Boycott Essay
The Olympic Boycott
The Olympic boycott was the attempt to keep many nations out of the 1980 Moscow Olympics, in a movement to draw the Soviets out of the Afghanistan war. The U.S knew that if they could start a boycott that it would ripple through all the nations and they would all follow the boycott. The U.S. didn’t want the Olympics to come to an end, they were hoping to put Russia in a position where they would have to make the soviets pull out. If the Soviets didn’t withdraw from the war, then Moscow could be looking at major debts for the 1980 Olympics.
Though the boycott was a smart idea; to prove a point, but the nations boycotting had to deal with all the people that were to participate, and missed their chance of a lifetime. President Carter stated, ‘“Regardless of what other nations might do, I would not favor the sending of an American Olympic team to Moscow while the Soviet invasion troops are in Afghanistan.”’ (Bigelow) If the Soviets didn’t retreat within a month of the Olympics, from the invasion, President Jimmy Carter would withdraw from the Olympics along with many nations. Canada, some of Germany, and Japan joined the U.S. in boycotting the Olympics. Carter tried, but failed to convince Great Britain, France, Greece and Australia to also boycott the games. The U.S. not only issued a boycott, Carter also pressured the Soviets to back out on the Afghanistan war, by cutting off their trade supply of the goods they needed, such as grain and technology.
When an international coalition suggested that the nations that were boycotting send athletes to go to the Olympics under a neutral Olympic banner, President Carter threatened to revoke the passport of any U.S. athlete who attempted to leave to go compete. Reaction to Carter's decision was mixed. “Many Americans pitied the athletes who had worked so hard toward their goal of competing in the Olympics and who might not qualify to compete in the next games in 1984.” (Carter) Carter faced the wrath of Howard Cosell saying to all athletes that President Carter killed the 1980 Olympics. Most Americans attitudes were as follows: “I’m as patriotic as the next guy, but the patriotic thing to do is for us to send a team over there and whip their ass.” (Sarantakes)
President Carters’ worried that the fall of the Olympics was going to be blamed entirely on the U.S. He then stated “It must be seen as a legitimate worldwide political reaction to what the Russians are doing in Afghanistan.” After immense thought and meetings with his staff Carter came to the conclusion of boycotting the 1980 Summer Olympics. At a breakfast meeting of his foreign policy team, Carter made the decision go into action against the Moscow Olympics. “Late in December 1979 the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, and in January 1980 US president Jimmy Carter warned that in retaliation the United States would withdraw from the Moscow Olympic Games, due to begin at the end of July.” (Hill)
In 1979 the...
Loading: Checking Spelling0%
Pierre de Coubertin and The Modern Olympic Movement1241 words - 5 pages INTRODUCTION At the same time that sport is a product of social reality, it is also unique. No other institution, except perhaps religion, commands the mystique, the nostalgia, the romantic ideational cultural fixation that sport does. No other activity so paradoxically combines the serious with the frivolous, playfulness with intensity, and the ideological with the structural. (Frey & Eitzen 504) OLYMPIC ORIGINS AND IDEALS Pierre de...
The Olympics and Political Intervention Essay1805 words - 7 pages During the Cold War, the Olympics were severely influenced by politics regardless of their original values. Almost fifty countries boycotted in the Moscow Olympic or did not participate in opening ceremony. The athletes could not fight under the national flag. Could you call this as the biggest worldwide sporting event which we enjoy supporting and cheering up the athletes? These relationships severely ruin the original value of the Olympics. For...
Olympics: History3157 words - 13 pages The most important thing at the Olympic Games is not to win, but to take part, just as the important thing about life is not to conquer but to struggle well. The words spoken by Pierre de Coubertin, father of the Modern Summer Olympic Games. Baron Pierre de...
The Olympic Games3179 words - 13 pages Olympic GamesThe most important thing at the Olympic Games is not to win, but to take part, just as the important thing about life is not to conquer but to struggle well. The words spoken by Pierre de Coubertin, father of the Modern Summer Olympic Games. Baron...
Politics and the Modern Olympics2415 words - 10 pages At first thought, it may be difficult to understand any possible connection between sports and politics. The New International Webster's Dictionary of the English Language defines politics as 'the science of government', and sports as 'a particular game or physical activity pursued for diversion'. On the surface the two concepts have very little in common, yet their connection can be traced to antiquity and the first organized sporting events. ...
The Afghan-Soviet war1109 words - 4 pages © Sajad Bahram Yr 12: Afghan-Soviet War "War puts nations to the test. Just as mummies fall to pieces the moment that they are exposed to the air, so war pronounces its sentence of death on those social institutions that have become ossified."Karl MarxOn December 24th 1979, the Soviet Union...
The Effect of the 1936 Berlin Olympics on the Nazi's Persecution of the Jews and the Road to World War 21808 words - 7 pages A. Plan of Investigation This investigation assesses the effect of the 1936 Berlin Olympics on the Nazi’s persecution of the Jews and the road to World War II. Hitler used the 1936 Olympics as a major source of propaganda, and wanted to show the world that Germany was a successful country with a rising economy. This investigation will look at how he used the Games to further his cause and how successful he was in achieving these goals. ...
Nazi Olympics2660 words - 11 pages The Nazi Olympics The 1936 Olympics in Berlin, also known as the “Nazi Olympics”, was a milestone in the history of the world. All of the attention of the Olympics that year was focused on Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. In 1933, Nazi leader Adolf Hitler became leader of Germany and quickly turned the nation's democracy into a one-party dictatorship. He took thousands of political opponents, holding them without trial in concentration camps. The...
The American Dream according to the 1970s and Norman MacLean's "A River Runs Through It"1415 words - 6 pages Again and again, the American Dream changes more rapidly than most decades have a chance to change. The novel, A River Runs Through It, written by Norman MacLean, suggests a cold feeling growing in the 1970s, one that took away from everyone's time to relax in nature, although there are bleak times of pride and joy that almost suggest that times are changing in...
American Decade2641 words - 11 pages Tomas OhPeriod 11980'sThe 1980's included many devastating and also some tension causing events which would change the United States greatly. This essay will teach and inform readers about some important events from the 1980's of which I didn't know before researching this decade.The 1980's started out as a frightening failure for the rescue of fifty-three Americans who are held hostage since Iranian militants...
To what extent did D745 words - 3 pages After Hungary, Berlin and the Cuban missile crisis the superpowers wanted to reduce international tensions to prevent nuclear war and to cut down military expenditures. But Détente was never amity, only the easing of tensions. The Sino-Soviet split, due to ideological and territorial matters, caused China and the Soviet Union to develop better...
Bruised Egos, Battles, and Boycott: The 1980 Moscow Olympics
by Elise Stevens Wilson
Politics and sports have intermingled since the inception of the Olympic Games in Greece, but not until the 1980 Olympics did people fear that politics might destroy the Olympic movement and spirit. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America battled each other ideologically, economically, militarily, culturally, and politically in a very long Cold War that spanned more than forty years (1948–1991). In the midst of the Cold War, the two countries often met in sporting arenas around the world to compete for medals. In 1980, Moscow hosted the Summer Olympics, the first Olympics held in a communist country. Because the United States and the USSR were deep in conflict, especially over the recent movement of Soviet troops into Afghanistan in 1979, the Olympics became an extension of the political arena. The United States did not show up for the games. The 1980 Olympics were not unusual because they were political, but because the extreme degree to which they were politicized had never before been seen. Many Americans and Soviets alike feared that the Olympics would be destroyed if politics infiltrated the games.
In 1980, some Americans believed it their duty to boycott the Olympic Games. Others felt that the Olympics were meant be a de-politicized time when countries could put aside their differences and celebrate something they had in common: sports. These opinions were discussed and debated in the media. Journalists, politicians, athletes, and average citizens expressed their feelings about, and their justifications for or against, the boycott. The 1980 Summer Olympics are significant both in sports history and Cold War history.
In this two-day lesson, students will investigate the various reasons for the boycott and the ways Americans analyzed the 1980 Moscow Olympics at the time. Students will use periodicals as their tools for examining this period in history, and teachers should take the opportunity to discuss media bias. Students will gather information from articles and participate in a debate over whether the US should have boycotted. Additionally, a PowerPoint accompanies this lesson to aid in background information.
- Students will be able to identify various points of view.
- Students will be able to describe why the boycott is significant to both sports history and Cold War history.
- Students will be able to effectively debate using arguments gathered from American periodicals.
- Students will formulate opinions on whether politics should be mix with sporting events.
Day One (45–60 minutes)
Use the Think, Pair, Share method or a journal prompt, and ask students the following: Do you think political disagreements between countries should affect their participation in the Olympics? Or: If you were the leader of a country, and the Olympic Games were being held in another country that you believed committed crimes against its people, would you send your athletes to that country? (5 minutes)
Use the 1980 Moscow Olympics Background PowerPoint to introduce the Cold War and the back story to the Moscow Games. (7–10 minutes)
Take some time to discuss media bias with students. Tell students that they will be working with periodicals and that they should take bias into account when reading these sources. (5 minutes)
Divide students into groups of 3–4, and give each group a different article from US periodicals—arguments for and against the boycott found under Materials. Instruct students to read the articles in groups and underline sections that express an opinion about the boycott. (10–15 minutes)
Give each group a large piece of paper and colored markers. Ask each group to discuss their article and write down key ideas. At the top, they should indicate whether are pro-boycott, anti-boycott, or split. (5–10 minutes)
In groups, students should prepare for a debate on whether America should have boycotted the Olympics in Moscow. You can set up the debate in one of two ways.
- Students can take on the personalities mentioned in the articles, such as athletes, politicians, the President, the International Olympic Committee, or even the US Olympic Committee, and debate each other on a television show that is similar to The McLaughlin Group or Meet the Press.
- Students can be members of a presidential advisory committee on the Olympics. Their job is to convince the President which position to take on the boycott.
Some articles will have opposing viewpoints, so you should divide groups into two. Students should create a slogan that best represents their opinions. This slogan can be displayed during the debate. (15 minutes)
Students should prepare for the debate. To make the debate more interesting, students can dress appropriately for their roles.
Day Two (45–60 minutes)
Most of this class period will be spent on the debate for which students have prepared the previous day. Lay down the ground rules for the debate. There are a number of different ways to hold a class debate. (5 minutes)
Here is one suggestion for a class debate:
1) Assign a student to be a moderator or the teacher can be the moderator. If you chose option (a) for the debate, the moderator can act as the television host. If you chose option (b) for the debate, the moderator can be the President of the United States. 2) Only one person may speak at a time. 3) While a person is speaking others should take notes to use to further support their position or to attack the other side. 4) Provide a time limit for each person to speak (1–2 minutes). 5) Make sure each side has an equal amount of time to speak. 6) At the end of the debate, one student from each side gets one minute to provide closing arguments. 7) Remind them that they are not students, but either the personalities from the articles or members of a presidential committee, and they can feel free to take on these roles fully.
Allow students to meet with their sides for a few minutes. They should pick who will give the closing argument and perhaps who should speak first, second, third, etc. (5 minutes)
Proceed with the debate. (15–25 minutes)
Debrief the debate. Ask students how they would feel about the boycott using the barometer method. For this method, students line up on an imaginary line in the classroom with one end of the line representing the choice to boycott, and the other the choice to attend the Olympics. Students can stand anywhere along this spectrum and justify their position. (5 minutes)
Choose one or more of the articles from US periodicals—coverage of the Moscow Olympics and the boycott found under Materials. Read the article(s) as a class, and make sure to point out the media bias. This will give students some closure to the issue of the boycott as well as allow them to see more of the language and rhetoric used during the Cold War. (10–20 minutes)
Ask students to write a response to the following prompts. (5 minutes)
- In this debate, who had the most persuasive argument and why?
- Evaluate whether the Moscow Olympic Games were an appropriate battleground for the Cold War.
In addition to the debate and written responses, students can be assessed in the following manner:
- Students can write a letter to President Carter either in support of or in opposition to the boycott of the Moscow Olympics. Make sure they identify the reasons for their opinions.
- Students can research other Olympics that have been politicized and write a comparison paper focusing on whether sports activities should be political.
- Students can research articles from major American newspapers on whether the United States should have supported the Beijing Games in 2008. Many people felt that China, a communist country, had violated human rights and therefore should not be supported. It is an excellent, modern analogy to the Moscow Olympics.
As an extension to this lesson plan, the students can explore how Soviet periodicals covered the boycott and the Moscow Olympics. A good source with an English translation is The Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press.