Satish Gujral is an eminent Indian painter, sculptor, writer and architect. Let's take a look at his paintings, artworks, sculpture, life history and some interesting facts.
Date of Birth: December 25, 1925
Place of Birth: Jhelum, Punjab, British India
Professions: Painter, muralist, sculptor, architect, graphic designer and writer
Child: Mohit Gujral
Father: Avtar Narain Gujral
Mother: Pushpa Gujral
Sibling: Inder Kumar Gujral (former Prime Minister of India)
Awards: Padma Vibhushan (1999), NDTV Indian of the Year (2014)
Over the last six decades, Indian art and architecture has been greatly benefited, thanks to the fickle-minded nature of Satish Gujral. Because of his ability to get bored of things easily, he kept changing his profession, but perfected each one of them. At the end of it all, the man turned into one of the most brilliant multi-faceted personalities India has ever seen. Though he wouldn’t agree to it, art has remained his constant love, even as he experimented with it like no other lover would. Over the years, he has constantly changed his medium and materials in order to differentiate his art from that of his previous creation. Known for creating some of the most exquisite paintings, murals and sculptures, Satish Gujral is one of the greatest as well as the most versatile artists of India. He also ventured into architecture, even as people criticized him for doing so since he was already successful as an artist. Had he not ventured into architecture fearing failure, India wouldn’t have got one of the finest buildings of the 20th century – the Belgium Embassy, situated in New Delhi.
Image Credit: https://nkhayi.wordpress.com/2011/04/09/the-art-of-life/
Childhood & Early Life
Satish Gujral was born in the year 1925 in the pre-partition Punjab, British India. He grew up along with his elder brother Inder Kumar Gujral, who would later go on to become the Prime Minister of India. At the tender age of 10, he suffered an illness which fatally impaired his hearing. He developed an interest towards painting and started portraying his own thoughts when he was only 14. He spent most of his childhood in Lahore, and thus had to witness the gruesome partition at a very young age. In one of his later interviews, he has said that he witnessed killings almost daily. The impact the partition had on him was so strong that it would later form the basis of his art in the initial stages of his career.
Satish joined the Mayo School of Arts in Lahore in the year 1939 in order to study applied arts. After graduating from the Mayo School of Arts, he moved to Bombay (now Mumbai) in 1944 and took admission at the Sir JJ School of Art. During his stay at the college, which lasted from 1944 to 1947, he came into contact with the famous Progressive Artists’ Group of Bombay. However, he found it difficult to agree with their techniques and started looking for modernism in art, with its roots belonging to the Indian tradition. In 1947, a recurring sickness forced Satish to drop out of JJ School of Art and eventually completed his education in the year 1949. He left for Mexico in the year 1952 after he was granted a scholarship from the Mexican embassy. He served his apprenticeship under well-known artists Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros.
In the initial stages of his career, his work was heavily influenced by the suffering of people who lost their homes and families because of the partition of the country. Since he had witnessed the cruel act first-hand, he couldn’t help but to incorporate his personal experience in his creations. Later on, he realized that people would not appreciate the same kind of art over and over again and hence started to change his style of work. Slowly, Satish started diversifying his sculptural materials with machined industrialized objects made up of steel, copper, glass, etc., and even gave life to sculptures by using junk materials.
The period of 1952 to 1974 saw Satish Gujral organizing solo shows all over the world. The shows featured his sculptures, paintings and graphics. The cities in which he organized his shows include Mexico City, New York, New Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Montreal, Rome, Berlin, Tokyo, Buenos Aires and Stockholm. Since the late 1980s, paintings and sculptures of Satish Gujral have shown a greater expansion, both in terms of materials as well as content. He started making large murals, mostly in mosaic and ceramic tiles. Later, machined steel elements overtook the tiles. Satish Gujral's sculptures, made out of burnt wood, come across as visceral exposure of human and other forms.
Image Credit: Pinterest
Satish Gujral’s Stint as an Architect
In one of his interviews he has mentioned about him being bored with art as he felt that he had done everything that he could do with art. Thus in 1968, he ventured into architecture despite the fact that many considered him a fool for doing so, for he hadn’t even studied architecture. But soon, he proved his critics wrong when the Belgium diplomats approached him, requesting him to come up with an edifice that would serve as their embassy in India. In 1984, he completed his project and took his critics by surprise, for the building looked astonishing. So much so, that it was later termed as one of the finest buildings of the 20th century in a forum held by international architects. He then went on to build magnificent edifices like the summer palace of Saudi Arabia in Riyadh, CMC research center in Hyderabad and the Goa University. The summer palace of Saudi Arabia was asked to build by the prince of Saudi Arabia after he was highly impressed with the Belgium embassy. Though he had a rollicking start to his architectural career, Satish shifted his focus back to painting as he got bored of architecture.
No matter what the subject matter is, Satish Gujral creates his works after understanding their nuances and the history behind them. This gives his works depth and sets them apart from the works of his contemporaries. Like many great artists, Satish too, is a master of creating modern art without disturbing its tradition, for there lingers the real beauty of any art.
Image source: YouTube.com
Exhibition at the India Art Fair
In 2014, Satish Gujral decided to display some of his creations at the India Art Fair. This provided a unique opportunity to many art lovers who hadn’t had the honor of witnessing his art before this. The artworks displayed were from his personal collection, created between the 1950s up until 2013. A total of 26 paintings and sculptures were put up for sale, out of which five belonged to the famous partition-inspired works.
Awards and Recognition
Satish Gujral has received the following awards in recognition of his vital contribution to the field of art:
- National Award for Painting - The National Award in the field of painting is considered as one of the most prestigious awards. He has bagged this award twice in his illustrious career so far.
- National Award for Sculpture - He managed to bag the National Award for sculpting as well.
- State Honor - He was honored by the State Government of Punjab for his impeccable contribution towards art and architecture.
- Order of the Crown –The government of Belgium honored him with this prestigious award for his contribution towards architecture.
- Padma Vibhushan – In the year 1999, the government of India honored him with the country’s second highest civilian award.
- Leonardo Da Vinci Award – This prestigious award was presented to him by the World Cultural Council for his impressive contribution towards offering positive messages to the world through various expressions of art.
- International Award for Life Time Achievement – The government of Mexico honored him with this award.
- NDTV Indian of the Year – In 2014, he was selected as the Indian of the Year by NDTV, a national media.
Throughout his life, Satish Gujral has had several health issues, but he maintains that his health issues have helped him significantly in giving a totally different perception on life. He says that after each and every recovery, he was forced to make the best out of his life, which translates into his works. His health issues began when he was just 10, affecting his hearing ability. It was only in 1998 he recovered completely and regained his ability to hear after undergoing a surgery.
Satish Gujral is married to Kiran and currently lives at his New Delhi residence. Their son Mohit Gujral, who is a prominent architect himself, married Feroze Gujral, a former model and together they founded Gujral Foundation in the year 2008, which is a non-profit trust. Satish Gujral has two granddaughters – Alpana and Raseel Gujral Ansal. While Alpana is a jewellery designer, Raseel Gujral Ansal is an interior designer, who established Casa Paradox & Casa Pop.
Image Credit: http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Delhi/delhi-hasnt-learnt-to-respect-its-artists-yet-satish-gujral/article6518393.ece
Several documentaries have been made on his life. He was part of the tele film ‘Partition: The Day India Burned’, released by BBC. Based on his autobiography ‘A Brush with Life’, a wonderful documentary was made and released on 15 February 2012. Apart from all these, his legacy will live on forever through his wonderful creations.
1. Jhelum – Jhelum /ˈdʒeɪləm/ is a city on the right bank of the Jhelum River, in the district of the same name in the north of Punjab province, Pakistan. Jhelum is a few miles upstream from the site of the Battle of the Hydaspes between the armies of Alexander of Macedonia and Raja Porus, a city called Bucephala was founded nearby to commemorate the death of Alexanders horse, Bucephalus. Other notable sites include the 16th-century Rohtas Fort, the Tilla Jogian complex of ancient temples. According to the 1998 census of Pakistan, the population of Jhelum was 145,647, the name of the city is derived from the words Jal and Ham, as the river that flows through the river originates in the Himalayas. There are a number of industries in and around Jhelum city, including a factory, wood, marble, glass. Anjum Sultan Shahbaz recorded some stories of the name Jhelum in his book Tareekh-e-Jhelum as, Shahbaz, the Rajputs, Jats and Ahirs, who now hold the Salt Range and its northern plateau respectively, appear to have been the earliest inhabitants of Jhelum. The history of Jhelum dates back to the period of the Mahabharata. Hindu tradition represents the nearby Salt Range as the refuge of the five Pandava brothers during the period of their exile, the next major point in the history of the district was the Battle of the Hydaspes between Alexander the Great and the local ruler, Porus. Alexander not only allowed him to retain his kingdom, but increased it, the Gakhars appear to represent an early wave of conquerors from the west, and who still inhabit a large tract in the mountain north to tilla range. Gakhars were the dominant race during the early Muslim era and they continued to retain their independence. In 997 CE, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, took over the Ghaznavid dynasty empire established by his father, in 1005 he conquered the Shahis in Kabul and followed it by the conquests of Punjab region including Jhelum. The Delhi Sultanate and later Mughal Empire ruled the region, the Punjab region became predominantly Muslim due to missionary Sufi saints whose dargahs dot the landscape of Punjab region. The Mughals were Persianized Turks who claimed descent from both Timur and Genghis Khan and strengthened the Persianate culture of Muslim India, being very few in number, they adopted a policy of converting the local jats and Gakhars mandatory as recorded in the Baburnama. Thus it is credited to the Mughals, who were responsible for the conversion of the jatts to Islam. With the collapse of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb, after the decline of the Mughal Empire, the Sikh invaded and occupied Jhelum District. The Muslims faced severe restrictions during the Sikh rule, in 1849 Jhelum passed with the rest of the Sikh territories to the British. During British rule, Jhelum was connected by the North-Western Railway to other cities in the Indian Empire,1,367 miles from Calcutta,1,413 from Bombay, the population according to the 1901 census of India was 14,951. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India, During the Indian Rebellion of 1857,35 British soldiers of the 24th Regiment of Foot were killed by the local resistance, among the dead was Captain Francis Spring, the eldest son of Colonel William Spring
2. Punjab Province (British India) – Punjab, also spelled Panjab, was a province of British India. Most of the Punjab region was annexed by the East India Company in 1849 and it comprised five administrative divisions — Delhi, Jullunder, Lahore, Multan and Rawalpindi — and a number of princely states. The partition of India led to the province being divided into East Punjab and West Punjab, belonging to the newly created Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan respectively. The name of the region is a compound of two Persian words Panj and āb and was introduced to the region by the Turko-Persian conquerors of India, Punjab literally means Five Waters referring to the rivers, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas. All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Chenab being the largest, moreover, the province as constituted under British rule also included a large tract outside these boundaries. Along the northern border, Himalayan ranges divided it from Kashmir, on the west it was separated from the North-West Frontier Province by the Indus, until it reached the border of Dera Ghazi Khan District, which was divided from Baluchistan by the Sulaiman Range. To the south lay Sindh and Rajputana, while on the east the rivers Jumna, following the victory, the East India Company annexed Punjab on 2 April 1849 and it was made part of the British Raj, at that time administered by the EIC. Lord Dalhousie constituted the Board of Administration by inducting into it the most experienced and seasoned British officers, the members include Sir Henry Lawrence, who had previously worked as British Resident at the Lahore Durbar. Henceforth the Punjab would provide Sikh and Punjabi sepoy regiments to the EICs armies in India and these soldiers would later help the British to put down the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Delhi was transferred from the North-Western Provinces to Punjab in 1859, the British colonial government took this action partly to punish the city for the important role that the last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, and the city as a whole played in the 1857 Rebellion. Sir John Lawrence, then Chief Commissioner, was appointed the first Lieutenant-Governor on 1 January 1859, the territory under the Lieutenant consisted of 29 Districts, grouped under 5 Divisions, and 43 Princely States. Each District was under a Deputy-Commissioner, who reported to the Commissioner of the Division, each District was subdivided into between three and seven tehsils, each under a tahsildar, assisted by a naib tahsildar. In 1866, the Judicial Commissioner was replaced by a Chief Court, the direct administrative functions of the Government were carried out through the Lieutinent-Governor through the Secretariat, comprising a Chief Secretary, a Secretary and two Under-Secretaries. They were usually members of the Indian Civil Service, by the late 19th century, however, the Indian nationalist movement took hold in the province. One of the most significant events associated with the movement was the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in 1919, British colonel Reginald Dyer ordered his troops to fire on a group of some 10,000 unarmed Indians who had convened to protest new anti-subversion regulations. In 1901 the frontier districts beyond the Indus were separated from Punjab and made into a new province, the first Punjab Legislative Council under the 1919 Act was constituted in 1921, comprising 93 members, seventy per cent to be elected and rest to be nominated. Some of the Indian ministers under the scheme were Sir Sheikh Abdul Qadir, Khan Bahadur Chaudhry Sir Shahab-ud-Din. The Government of India Act 1935 introduced provincial autonomy to Punjab replacing the system of dyarchy and it provided for the constitution of Punjab Legislative Assembly of 175 members presided by a Speaker and an executive government responsible to the Assembly
3. Presidencies and provinces of British India – Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent. Collectively, they were called British India, in one form or other they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods. During 1612–1757, the East India Company set up factories in several locations, mostly in coastal India and its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Holland and France. By the mid-18th century, three Presidency towns, Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta had grown in size, during the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company gradually acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called Presidencies. However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it gradually lost its mercantile privileges, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Companys remaining powers were transferred to the Crown. In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended to a few new regions, increasingly, however, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into Provinces. In 1608, the English East India Company established a settlement at Surat, and it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, and in 1612 the company joined other already established European trading companies in Bengal. Company rule in Bengal, however, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857 and these rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in area and population, in 1910, for example, it covered approximately 54% of the area, in addition, there were Portuguese and French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter also including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh. The term British India also applied to Burma for a time period, starting in 1824, a small part of Burma. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony, British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, which was a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate. It also included the Colony of Aden in the Arabian Peninsula, the original seat of government was at Allahabad, then at Agra from 1834 to 1868. Bombay Presidency, East India Companys headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687, the East India Company, which was incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a trading outpost in Madras in 1639, meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. Almost a half-century later, after Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly, by the mid-18th century the three principal trading settlements, now called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, and the Bengal Presidency were each administered by a Governor. After Robert Clives victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, in 1772, the Company also obtained the Nizāmat of Bengal and thereby full sovereignty of the expanded Bengal Presidency
4. Painting – Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives, sponges, Painting is a mode of creative expression, and the forms are numerous. Drawing, gesture, composition, narration, or abstraction, among other aesthetic modes, may serve to manifest the expressive, Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, photographic, abstract, narrative, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by motifs and ideas. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action, the term painting is also used outside of art as a common trade among craftsmen and builders. What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity, every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity, thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization, and symbols. In technical drawing, thickness of line is ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters. Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music, color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent, the word red, for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic, painters deal practically with pigments, so blue for a painter can be any of the blues, phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not, strictly speaking, colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this, the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to light in painting, shades to dynamics and these elements do not necessarily form a melody of themselves, rather, they can add different contexts to it. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, as one example, collage, some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer, there is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required, rhythm is important in painting as it is in music
5. Sculpture – Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, India and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may also decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting, stamping and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies. The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple. Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
6. Mural – A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface. A distinguishing characteristic of painting is that the architectural elements of the given space are harmoniously incorporated into the picture. Some wall paintings are painted on canvases, which are then attached to the wall. Whether these works can be accurately called murals is a subject of controversy in the art world. Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the paintings in the Chauvet Cave in Ardèche department of southern France, many ancient murals have been found within ancient Egyptian tombs, the Minoan palaces and in Pompeii. During the Middle Ages murals were executed on dry plaster. The huge collection of Kerala mural painting dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco, in Italy, circa 1300, the technique of painting of frescos on wet plaster was reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of mural painting. In modern times, the became more well-known with the Mexican muralism art movement. There are many different styles and techniques, the best-known is probably fresco, which uses water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, and often in parts. The colors lighten as they dry, the marouflage method has also been used for millennia. Murals today are painted in a variety of ways, using oil or water-based media, the styles can vary from abstract to trompe-lœil. Initiated by the works of artists like Graham Rust or Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe-loeil painting has experienced a renaissance in private. The buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a layer of wet, fresh. The pigment is absorbed by the wet plaster, after a number of hours. After this the painting stays for a time up to centuries in fresh. Fresco-secco painting is done on dry plaster, the pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg, glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall. By the end of the century this had largely displaced the buon fresco method. This technique had, in reduced form, the advantages of a secco work, in Greco-Roman times, mostly encaustic colors applied in a cold state were used
7. Architect – An architect is someone who plans, designs, and reviews the construction of buildings. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, practical, technical, and academic requirements for becoming an architect vary by jurisdiction. The terms architect and architecture are used in the disciplines of landscape architecture, naval architecture. In most jurisdictions, the professional and commercial uses of the terms architect, throughout ancient and medieval history, most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans—such as stone masons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Until modern times, there was no distinction between architect and engineer. In Europe, the architect and engineer were primarily geographical variations that referred to the same person. It is suggested that various developments in technology and mathematics allowed the development of the gentleman architect. Paper was not used in Europe for drawing until the 15th century, pencils were used more often for drawing by 1600. The availability of both allowed pre-construction drawings to be made by professionals, until the 18th-century, buildings continued to be designed and set out by craftsmen with the exception of high-status projects. In most developed countries, only qualified people with appropriate license, certification, or registration with a relevant body, such licensure usually requires an accredited university degree, successful completion of exams, and a training period. To practice architecture implies the ability to independently of supervision. In many places, independent, non-licensed individuals may perform design services outside the professional restrictions, such design houses, in the architectural profession, technical and environmental knowledge, design and construction management, and an understanding of business are as important as design. However, design is the force throughout the project and beyond. An architect accepts a commission from a client, the commission might involve preparing feasibility reports, building audits, the design of a building or of several buildings, structures, and the spaces among them. The architect participates in developing the requirements the client wants in the building, throughout the project, the architect co-ordinates a design team. Structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers and other specialists, are hired by the client or the architect, the architect hired by a client is responsible for creating a design concept that meets the requirements of that client and provides a facility suitable to the required use. In that, the architect must meet with and question the client to ascertain all the requirements, often the full brief is not entirely clear at the beginning, entailing a degree of risk in the design undertaking. The architect may make proposals to the client which may rework the terms of the brief
8. Writing – Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion through the inscription or recording of signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language, Writing is not a language but a form of technology that developed as tools developed with human society. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar and semantics. The result of writing is called text, and the recipient of text is called a reader. Motivations for writing include publication, storytelling, correspondence and diary, Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems. As human societies emerged, the development of writing was driven by pragmatic exigencies such as exchanging information, maintaining financial accounts, codifying laws, in both ancient Egypt and Mesoamerica writing may have evolved through calendrics and a political necessity for recording historical and environmental events. H. G. Wells argued that writing has the ability to put agreements, laws and it made the growth of states larger than the old city states possible. It made a continuous historical consciousness possible, the command of the priest or king and his seal could go far beyond his sight and voice and could survive his death. The major writing systems—methods of inscription—broadly fall into four categories, logographic, syllabic, alphabetic, another category, ideographic, has never been developed sufficiently to represent language. A sixth category, pictographic, is insufficient to represent language on its own, a logogram is a written character which represents a word or morpheme. A vast number of logograms are needed to write Chinese characters, cuneiform, and Mayan, where a glyph may stand for a morpheme, many logograms have an ideographic component. For example, in Mayan, the glyph for fin, pronounced ka, was used to represent the syllable ka whenever the pronunciation of a logogram needed to be indicated. In Chinese, about 90% of characters are compounds of an element called a radical with an existing character to indicate the pronunciation. However, such phonetic elements complement the elements, rather than vice versa. A syllabary is a set of symbols that represent syllables. A glyph in a syllabary typically represents a consonant followed by a vowel, or just a vowel alone, phonetically related syllables are not so indicated in the script. For instance, the syllable ka may look nothing like the syllable ki, syllabaries are best suited to languages with a relatively simple syllable structure, such as Japanese. Other languages that use syllabic writing include the Linear B script for Mycenaean Greek, Cherokee, Ndjuka, an English-based creole language of Surinam, most logographic systems have a strong syllabic component
9. Padma Vibhushan – The Padma Vibhushan is the second-highest civilian award of the Republic of India, preceded by Bharat Ratna and followed by Padma Bhushan. Instituted on 2 January 1954, the award is given for exceptional and distinguished service, without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The award criteria include service in any field including service rendered by Government servants including doctors and scientists, as of 2017, the award has been bestowed on 300 individuals, including twelve posthumous and 19 non-citizen recipients. During 1 May and 15 September of every year, the recommendations for the award are submitted to the Padma Awards Committee, the committee later submits their recommendations to the Prime Minister and the President of India for the further approval. The award recipients are announced on Republic Day, the first recipients of the award were Satyendra Nath Bose, Nand Lal Bose, Zakir Hussain, Balasaheb Gangadhar Kher, Jigme Dorji Wangchuk, and V. K. Krishna Menon, who were honoured in 1954. The 1954 statutes did not allow posthumous awards but this was modified in the January 1955 statute. The Padma Vibhushan, along with other personal civil honours, was suspended twice, from July 1977 to January 1980. Some of the recipients have refused or returned their conferments, on 15 January 1955, the Padma Vibhushan was reclassified into three different awards, the Padma Vibhushan, the highest of the three, followed by the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Shri. The suspension was rescinded on 25 January 1980 after Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister, both petitioners questioned the civilian awards being titles per an interpretation of Article 18 of the Constitution of India. On 25 August 1992, the Madhya Pradesh High Court issued a notice temporarily suspending all civilian awards. A Special Division Bench of the Supreme Court of India was formed comprising five judges, A. M. Ahmadi C. J. Kuldip Singh, B. P. Jeevan Reddy, N. P. Singh, and S. Saghir Ahmad. On 15 December 1995, the Special Division Bench restored the awards and delivered a judgment that the Bharat Ratna, the award is conferred for exceptional and distinguished service, without distinction of race, occupation, position, or sex. The recommendations received during 1 May and 15 September of every year are submitted to the Padma Awards Committee, the Awards Committee later submits its recommendations to the Prime Minister and the President of India for further approval. The conferral of the award is not considered official without its publication in the Gazette, the original 1954 specifications of the award called for a circle made of gold gilt 1 3⁄8 inches in diameter, with rims on both sides. A floral wreath was embossed along the edge and a lotus wreath at the top along the upper edge. The Emblem of India was placed in the centre of the side with the text Desh Seva in Devanagari Script on the lower edge. The medal was suspended by a pink riband 1 1⁄4 inches in width divided into two segments by a white vertical line. A year later, the design was modified, the current decoration is a circular-shaped bronze toned medallion 1 3⁄4 inches in diameter and 1⁄8 inch thick
10. India – India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the later peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is also traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since then and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
11. I. K. Gujral