What Is The Connection Between Time Management And Critical Thinking


Time Management

iStudy would like to acknowledge Glenna Emel for revising this tutorial's content.



Students come to college with different expectations for their particular college experience. Some arrive with a clear goal of obtaining a degree. Other students simply enjoy learnin and see the opportunity to learn in an atmosphere created for that very purpose as an important part of earning their degree. Others expect college to be a time to have fun, make new friends, and enjoy life without parental supervision, while some students are parents themselves, work full-time, or have other adult responsibilities and obligations.

Whatever your expectations, the reality is that being able to plan and prioritize activities is an important skill to obtain so that you can complete class assignments and projects on time without denying yourself a social life, recreational activities, or other items that are important to you.

You will find some classes require more time than others. Studies have shown that the recommended "prep time" for every hour spent in class is two to three hours a week. This means taking fifteen credits will require between fourty-five to sixty hours a week to attend class and keep up with assignments and studying. This work load is heavier than that of many full-time jobs. In addition to study requirements, extra-curricular activities affect leisure time as well. Both families and jobs also come with additional time constraints.

Time management is a major concern for most of us. For a student, managing time has its own special twists and turns that have to be negotiated. Time management helps you to meet deadlines and be responsible. It helps you fit all the different pieces of your life together and complete class assignments and projects without the added stress of an approaching deadline.

There will be times when you have multiple exams or class projects scheduled for the same day. Developing your time management skills by learning a few time management techniques will help you plan for events that you can foresee and cope with those you cannot.


Goals and Objectives

This tutorial addresses academic survival skills and provides opportunities for information gathering, synthesis, and analysis in solving problems and in critical thinking. The overall goal of this tutorial is to introduce you to time management terminology and concepts. Once you finish this tutorial, you will be able to: 

  • Determine goals for a given period of time.
  • Develop a strategy to achieve those goals.
  • Lay out a timetable for a term or semester.
  • Develop a weekly timetable.
  • Develop a daily timetable and "To Do" list.
  • Utilize time management techniques to avoid common mistakes and pitfalls in time management.



Below is the recommended sequence for completing this tutorial:

  • Learn what time management is and some guidelines for prioritizing your time, and complete Activity 1: Prioritizing and Analyzing and Activity 2: Current Time Management Status.
  • Estimate your time commitments for a week, and complete Activity 3: Time Management Exercise.
  • Work through the four steps for developing time management skills
    1. Determine your long-term goals (Activity 4: Autobiography, Activity 5: Identifying Goals and Resources, Activity 6: Semester Goals, Activity 7: Skills, Abilities, Resources, and Activity 8: Reflecting on Obstacles)
    2. Identify strategies to overcome obstacles (Activity 9: Developing Strategies, and Activity 10: Record and Analyze Overview)
    3. Lay out timetables for the semester
    4. Avoid pitfalls like procrastination (Activity 11: Favorite Ways to Procrastinate)


Note: All external links in this tutorial will open in a new window or tab.




Instructor's Guide

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Stress Management and Time Management

© Copyright Carter McNamara, MBA, PhD, Authenticity Consulting, LLC

One of the most frequent concerns and complaints of people today is that they don't have enough time to do what they -- or especially their bosses -- want them to do. Consequently, there are many resources with guidelines and tips to manage time more effectively. Time management and stress management often are closely related and discussed together.

Sections of This Topic Include

Myths About Stress and Time Management
Major Causes of Workplace Stress
Biggest Time Wasters
Common Symptoms of Poor Stress and Time Management
Wise Principles of Good Stress and Time Management
Simple Techniques to Manage Stress
Simple Techniques to Manage Time
Role of "Gumption"
Additional Resources About Time Management
Additional Resources About Stress Management

Also see
Related Library Topics

Learn More in the Library's Blogs Related to Time Management and Stress Management

In addition to the articles on this current page, also see the following blogs that have posts related to Time Management and Stress Management. Scan down the blog's page to see various posts. Also see the section "Recent Blog Posts" in the sidebar of the blog or click on "next" near the bottom of a post in the blog. The blog also links to numerous free related resources.

Library's Career Management Blog
Library's Coaching Blog
Library's Human Resources Blog
Library's Spirituality Blog

Myths About Stress and Time Management

Myth #1: All stress is bad. No, there's good and bad stress. Good stress is excitement, thrills, etc. The goal is to recognize personal signs of bad stress and deal with them.

Myth #2: Planning my time just takes more time. Actually, research shows the opposite.

Myth #3: I get more done in more time when I wisely use caffeine, sugar, alcohol or nicotine. Wrong! Research shows that the body always has to "come down" and when it does, you can't always be very effective then after the boost.

Myth #4: A time management problem means that there's not enough time to get done what needs to get done. No, a time management problem is not using your time to your fullest advantage, to get done what you want done.

Myth #5: The busier I am, the better I'm using my time. Look out! You may only be doing what's urgent, and not what's important.

Myth #6: I feel very harried, busy, so I must have a time management problem. Not necessarily. You should verify that you have a time management problem. This requires knowing what you really want to get done and if it is getting done or not.

Myth #7: I feel OK, so I must not be stressed. In reality, many adults don't even know when they're really stressed out until their bodies tell them so. They miss the early warning signs from their body, for example, headaches, still backs, twitches, etc.

Major Causes of Workplace Stress

  1. Not knowing what you want or if you're getting it - poor planning.
  2. The feeling that there's too much to do. One can have this feeling even if there's hardly anything to do at all.
  3. Not enjoying your job. This can be caused by lots of things, for example, not knowing what you want, not eating well, etc. However, most people always blame their jobs.
  4. Conflicting demands on the job.
  5. Insufficient resources to do the job.6. Not feeling appreciated.

Biggest Time Wasters

  1. Interruptions. There will always be interruptions. It's how they're handled that wastes time.
  2. Hopelessness. People "give in", "numb out" and "march through the day".
  3. Poor delegation skills. This involves not sharing work with others.

Common Symptoms of Poor Stress and Time Management

  1. Irritability. Fellow workers notice this first.
  2. Fatigue. How many adults even notice this?
  3. Difficulty concentrating. You often don't need to just to get through the day!
  4. Forgetfulness. You can't remember what you did all day, what you ate yesterday.
  5. Loss of sleep. This affects everything else!
  6. Physical disorders, for example, headaches, rashes, tics, cramps, etc.
  7. At worst, withdrawal and depression.

Wise Principles of Good Stress and Time Management

  1. Learn your signs for being overstressed or having a time management problem. Ask your friends about you. Perhaps they can tell you what they see from you when you're overstressed.
  2. Most people feel that they are stressed and/or have a time management problem. Verify that you really have a problem. What do you see, hear or feel that leads you to conclude that you have a time or stress problem?
  3. Don't have the illusion that doing more will make you happier. Is it quantity of time that you want, or quality?
  4. Stress and time management problems have many causes and usually require more than one technique to fix. You don't need a lot of techniques, usually more than one, but not a lot.
  5. One of the major benefits of doing time planning is feeling that you're in control.
  6. Focus on results, not on busyness.
  7. It's the trying that counts - at least as much as doing the perfect technique.

Simple Techniques to Manage Stress

There are lots of things people can do to cut down on stress. Most people probably even know what they could do. It's not the lack of knowing what to do in order to cut down stress; it is doing what you know you have to do. The following techniques are geared to help you do what you know you have to do.

  1. Talk to someone. You don't have to fix the problem, just report it.
  2. Notice if any of the muscles in your body are tense. Just noticing that will often relax the muscle.
  3. Ask your boss if you're doing OK. This simple question can make a lot of difference and verify wrong impressions.
  4. Delegate.
  5. If you take on a technique to manage stress, tell someone else. They can help you be accountable to them and yourself.
  6. Cut down on caffeine and sweets. Take a walk instead. Tell someone that you're going to do that.
  7. Use basic techniques of planning, problem solving and decision making.
  8. Concise guidelines are included in this guidebook. Tell someone that you're going to use these techniques.
  9. Monitor the number of hours that you work in a week. Tell your boss, family and/or friends how many hours that you are working.
  10. Write weekly status reports. Include what you've accomplished last week and plan to do next week. Include any current issues or recommendations that you must report to your boss. Give the written status report to your boss on a weekly basis.
  11. "Wash the dishes". Do something you can feel good about.

Simple Techniques to Manage Time

There never seems to be enough time in the roles of management and supervision. Therefore, the goal of time management should not be to find more time. The goal is set a reasonable amount of time to spend on these roles and then use that time wisely.

  1. Start with the simple techniques of stress management above.
  2. Managing time takes practice. Practice asking yourself this question throughout the day: "Is this what I want or need to be doing right now?" If yes, then keep doing it.
  3. Find some way to realistically and practically analyze your time. Logging your time for a week in 15-minute intervals is not that hard and does not take up that much time. Do it for a week and review your results.
  4. Do a "todo" list for your day. Do it at the end of the previous day. Mark items as "A" and "B" in priority. Set aside two hours right away each day to do the important "A" items and then do the "B" items in the afternoon. Let your answering machine take your calls during your "A" time.
  5. At the end of your day, spend five minutes cleaning up your space. Use this time, too, to organize your space, including your desktop. That'll give you a clean start for the next day.
  6. Learn the difference between "Where can I help?" and "Where am I really needed?" Experienced leaders learn that the last question is much more important than the former.
  7. Learn the difference between "Do I need to do this now?" and "Do I need to do this at all?" Experienced leaders learn how to quickly answer this question when faced with a new task.
  8. Delegate. Delegation shows up as a frequent suggestion in this guide because it is one of the most important skills for a leader to have. Effective delegation will free up a great deal of time for you.
  9. If you are CEO in a corporation, then ask your Board for help. They are responsible to supervise you, as a CEO. Although the Board should not be micro-managing you, that is, involved in the day-to-day activities of the corporation, they still might have some ideas to help you with your time management. Remember, too, that good time management comes from good planning, and the Board is responsible to oversee development of major plans. Thus, the Board may be able to help you by doing a better themselves in their responsibilities as planners for the organization.
  10. Use a "Do Not Disturb" sign! During the early part of the day, when you're attending to your important items (your "A" list), hang this sign on the doorknob outside your door.
  11. Sort your mail into categories including "read now", "handle now" and "read later". You'll quickly get a knack for sorting through your mail. You'll also notice that much of what you think you need to read later wasn't really all that important anyway.
  12. Read your mail at the same time each day. That way, you'll likely get to your mail on a regular basis and won't become distracted into any certain piece of mail that ends up taking too much of your time.
  13. Have a place for everything and put everything in its place. That way, you'll know where to find it when you need it. Another important outcome is that your people will see that you are somewhat organized, rather than out of control.
  14. Best suggestion for saving time - schedule 10 minutes to do nothing. That time can be used to just sit and clear your mind. You'll end up thinking more clearly, resulting in more time in your day. The best outcome of this practice is that it reminds you that you're not a slave to a clock - and that if you take 10 minutes out of your day, you and your organization won't fall apart.
  15. Learn good meeting management skills. Meetings can become a terrible waste of time. Guidelines for good meeting management are included later in this section.

Role of "Gumption"

Everything good usually starts with gumption. It's picking yourself up, deciding that you could be happier, that you want to be happier - and then doing one small thing to get you started and keep you going. Boredom and blaming are the opposite of gumption. Stress and time management start with gumption. It's the trying that counts. Poor time and stress management often comes from doing the same thing harder, rather than smarter.

Additional Resources About Time Management

Recommended Articles

Big Dog on Time Management
Better Time Management Is Not the Answer
Triple Your Personal Productivity
Improved Time Management Includes Setting Three Priorities

Additional Articles

Basics of Time and Stress Management
Time Management Central - tools, tips and reviews to save you time
Time Management - Psychological Self-Help
Planning Tips
Time Management Activities
What's Your Biggest Time Drain?
Definition of Time Management
Balance Your Work and Play Ethics
Are You In Control of or Controlled By Technology?
Basics of everyday planning and tasks management
Procrastination Definition
Time Slice Management
Coaching Tip -- Manage Time Urgency
A 90-Minute Plan for Personal Effectiveness
How Self-Tracking Can Benefit Business
Time Management With Eagles, Robins, Turkeys
Don’t Just Manage Your Time, Improve Your Productivity
Priority Management: Focus on the Big Rocks
Priority Management: Keep the Main Things the Main Thing
Multitasking Yourself to Mediocrity?
The “Do Nothing” Method of Productivity
Great Reads This Week in HR
Better Time Management Is Not the Answer

Additional Resources About Stress Management

Keeping Cool Under Stress Translates to Higher Productivity
Controlling Heightened Stress in the Workplace
Be Less Busy
Executive Stress: We Have Been on the Case
Stress, Anxiety, Fears, and Psychosomatic Disorders
Your brain on stress
Preventing Unnecessary Compensable Stress Claims
Reduce Stress by Increasing the Feedback
Hospitality Executives Under Stress During Stressful Times Need Executive Stress Solutions
Executives Under Stress During Stressful Times Need Executive Stress Solutions
Maintaining Personal Values At Work
Manage Holiday Stress
21 Ways to Shrink the Email Monster
Are Your Most Talented People Losing Their Minds?
Make Stress Work for You
Stress Management in the Workplace
Be Perfect or Be Your Best
Manage Job Stress
Manage Work Stress Before It Manages You!
10 Job Stress Tips
The Inspiration of Stress
Work Stress Getting You Down: Here’s How To Get Back Up!

Stress Tests

Stress Self-Evaluation
Stress Self-Evaluation
Stress Test

Also see
Critical Thinking
Creativity and Innovation
Creative Thinking
Decision Making
Organizing Yourself
Personal Development
Personal Wellness
Problem Solving
Time Management

For the Category of Personal Productivity:

To round out your knowledge of this Library topic, you may want to review some related topics, available from the link below. Each of the related topics includes free, online resources.

Also, scan the Recommended Books listed below. They have been selected for their relevance and highly practical nature.

Related Library Topics

Recommended Books


The following books are recommended because of their highly practical nature and often because they include a wide range of information about this Library topic. To get more information about each book, just click on the image of the book. Also, a "bubble" of information might be displayed. You can click on the title of the book in that bubble to get more information, too.

Also see

Decision Making -- Recommended Books

Problem Solving -- Recommended Books

Personal Development -- Recommended Books

Personal Productivity -- Recommended Books

Personal Wellness -- Recommended Books


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