Pulmonary Tuberculosis Essay

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13. Fenner L, Gagneux S, Janssens JP, Fehr J, Cavassini M, Hoffmann M, Bernasconi E, Schrenzel J, Bodmer T, Böttger EC, Helbling P, Egger M Swiss HIV Cohort and Molecular Epidemiology of Tuberculosis Study Groups. Tuberculosis in HIV-negative and HIV-infected patients in a low-incidence country: clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e34186. Epub 2012 Mar 30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0034186. [PMC free article][PubMed]

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16. World Health Organization (WHO) Consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection. Geneva: 2013. Available at: http://www.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85321/1/9789241505727_eng.pdf?ua=1.

17. World Health Organization (WHO) Tuberculosis in prison.http://www.who.int/tb/challenges/prisons/en/

18. Telisinghe L, Fielding KL, Malden JL, Hanifa Y, Churchyard GJ, Grant AD, Charalambous S. High tuberculosis prevalence in a South African prison: the need for routine tuberculosis screening. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 30;9(1):e87262. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087262..http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0087262. [PMC free article][PubMed][Cross Ref]

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20. Fazel S, Baillargeon J. The health of prisoners. Lancet. 2011 Mar 12;377(9769):956–65. Epub 2010 Nov 18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61053-7. [PubMed]

21. Baussano I, Williams BG, Nunn P, Beggiato M, Fedeli U, Scano F. Tuberculosis incidence in prisons: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2010 Dec 21;7(12):e1000381.http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000381. [PMC free article][PubMed]

22. Zenner D, Southern J, van Hest R, DeVries G, Stagg HR, Antoine D, Abubakar I. Active case finding for tuberculosis among high-risk groups in low-incidence countries. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 May;17(5):573–82.http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.12.0920. [PubMed]

23. Dara M, Chadha SS, Vinkeles Melchers NV, van den Hombergh J, Gurbanova E, Al-Darraji H, van der Meer JB International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Time to act to prevent and control tuberculosis among inmates. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Jan;17(1):4–5.http://dx.doi.org/10.5588/ijtld.12.0909. [PubMed]

24. International Organization for Migration (IOM) World Migration Report 2013: Migrant Well-being and Development. Geneva: 2013.

25. Sandgren A, Schepisi MS, Sotgiu G, Huitric E, Migliori GB, Manissero D, van der Werf MJ, Girardi E. Tuberculosis transmission between foreign- and native-born populations in the EU/EEA: a systematic review. Eur Respir J. 2014 Apr;43(4):1159–71. Epub 2013 Oct 10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00117213. [PMC free article][PubMed]

26. Kamper-Jørgensen Z, Andersen AB, Kok-Jensen A, Kamper-Jørgensen M, Bygbjerg IC, Andersen PH, Thomsen VO, Lillebaek T. Migrant tuberculosis: the extent of transmission in a low burden country. BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Mar 18;12:60.http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-12-60. [PMC free article][PubMed]

27. Franzetti F, Codecasa L, Matteelli A, Degli Esposti A, Bandera A, Lacchini C, Lombardi A, Pinsi G, Zanini F, El-Hamad I, Gori A. Genotyping analyses of tuberculosis transmission among immigrant residents in Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 Aug;16(8):1149–54. Epub 2009 Oct 14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.03080.x. [PubMed]

28. Zammarchi L, Bartalesi F, Bartoloni A. Tuberculosis in tropical areas and immigrants. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 1;6(1):e2014043.http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/mjhid.2014.043. [PMC free article][PubMed]

29. McCarthy AE, Weld LH, Barnett ED, So H, Coyle C, Greenaway C, Stauffer W, Leder K, Lopez-Velez R, Gautret P, Castelli F, Jenks N, Walker PF, Loutan L, Cetron M GeoSentinel Surveillance Network. Spectrum of illness in international migrants seen at GeoSentinel clinics in 1997–2009, part 2: migrants resettled internationally and evaluated for specific health concerns. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Apr;56(7):925–33. Epub 2012 Dec 7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cis1016. [PubMed]

30. McPherson ME, Kelly H, Patel MS, Leslie D. Persistent risk of tuberculosis in migrants a decade after arrival in Australia. Med J Aust. 2008 May 5;188(9):528–31.[PubMed]

31. Zignol M, Hosseini MS, Wright A, et al. Global incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J Infect Dis. 2006;194(4):479–85.http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/505877. [PubMed]

32. World Health Organization (WHO) Policy update: Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in adults and children. Geneva: 2013. (WHO/HTM/TB/2013.16) Available at: http://www.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/112472/1/9789241506335_eng.pdf?ua=1. [PubMed]

33. Falzon D, Jaramillo E, Schünemann HJ, et al. WHO guidelines for the programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis: 2011 update. Eur Respir J. 2011;38:516–28.http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00073611. [PubMed]

34. Van Deun A, et al. Short, highly effective, and inexpensive standardized treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2010;182(5):684–692.http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201001-0077OC. [PubMed]

35. Zumla A, Mwaba P, Huggett J, et al. Reflections on the white plague. Lancet Infect Dis. 2009;9(3):197–202.http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70045-3. [PubMed]

36. World Health Organization (WHO) TB: a global emergency, WHO report on the TB epidemic. Geneva: 1994. WHO/TB/94.177. Available at: http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/58749.

37. International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD) Tuberculosis Guide for Low Income Countries. 4th ed. IUATLD; Paris: 1996.

38. World Health Organization (WHO) WHO tuberculosis programme: framework for effective tuberculosis control. Geneva: 1994. WHO/TB/94.179. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1994/WHO_TB_94.179.pdf?ua=1.

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40. World Health Organization (WHO)/Stop-TB Partnership. The Global Plan to Stop TB: Phase 1: 2001–2005. WHO; Geneva: 2001. WHO/CDS/STB/2001.16. Available at: http://www.stoptb.org/assets/documents/global/plan/GLOBAL_PLAN_TO_STOP_TB_2001_2005.pdf.

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Tuberculosis


Tuberculosis is an airborne infectious disease caused by different strains of mycobacterium commonly referred to as mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is a very widespread infection and among the most lethal diseases. As a matter of fact, every year, over one million people die from tuberculosis infections or other tuberculosis related infections. Generally, tuberculosis is a lung infectious disease. However, tuberculosis can affect other body parts although these instances are very rare.


  • Cause and Effects of Tuberculosis

  • Tuberculosis is spread from one individual, who has an active tuberculosis infection, to another through the air, and hence it is an airborne disease. When the tuberculosis infected person cough or sneeze, the tuberculosis mycobacteriums are released to the air which are inhaled by the other peoples and thus lead to spread of the disease. Unfortunately, most tuberculosis does not have distinct symptoms during the initial or dormant stage, latent tuberculosis, although they test positive in tuberculosis test. Nevertheless, one in every ten people with latent tuberculosis eventually develops to active tuberculosis that if medication in not administered leads to over fifty percent of those infected.


    Actually, about a third of the world’s population is believed to have been infected with the mycobacterium tuberculosis. According to research, every year, about one percent of the world’s population is infected with the disease. For instance, an approximation of fourteen million cases of chronic tuberculosis was reported in 2007. In the year 2013, nine million new cases of active infections globally, and an approximate of one million associated deaths was reported. However, most of these infections and deaths were reported in developing continents like Africa and Asia.


  • Tuberculosis Symptoms and Medication

  • Although during latent stage tuberculosis has no symptoms, in active tuberculosis infection has several distinct symptoms which includes, chronic cough which in most case has some blood spots, night sweats, fever, and high rate of weight loss. However, tuberculosis infections on other body parts involve a wide range of symptoms.


    Active tuberculosis diagnosis majorly relies on the chest x-rays, radiology and microscopic investigations as well as body fluids microbiological culture. Latent tuberculosis diagnosis depends on the tuberculin blood tests or skin test. Tuberculosis medication is quite challenging and needs multiple administrations of antibiotics over a long-term. Social contacts are as well scrutinized and if necessary treated. The common and major challenge in tuberculosis medication is the antibiotic resistance. In fact, in most cases, tuberculosis develops into drug-resistant infection which becomes a great challenge to the medical doctors. Tuberculosis prevention depends on vaccinations by use of Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin vaccine and screening programs.

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